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This section outlines treatments that are the standard of care (the best proven treatments available) for this specific type of tumor. When making treatment plan decisions, patients are also encouraged to consider clinical trials as an option. A clinical trial is a research study to test a new treatment to evaluate whether it is safe, effective, and possibly better than standard treatment. Your doctor can help you review all treatment options.
For an adrenal gland tumor, different types of doctors often work together to create a patient’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatments. This is called a multidisciplinary team.
Descriptions of the most common treatment options for an adrenal gland tumor are listed below. Treatment options and recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, possible side effects, and the patient’s preferences and overall health.
Up to 25% of adrenal tumors may be linked to a genetic syndrome. When planning treatment, it may be helpful to consult a genetic counselor to learn whether the tumor is associated with a specific syndrome and whether other family members should undergo specific genetic tests. Learn more about genetic testing.
Surgery is the removal of the tumor and surrounding tissue during an operation. Adrenalectomy, which is the surgical removal of the adrenal gland with the tumor, may be needed to treat an adrenal gland tumor. A surgical endocrinologist is a surgeon who specializes in treating an endocrine tumor using surgery.
If the tumor is smaller than 5 cm and, based on size or the way it looks on imaging scans, shows no evidence that it is cancerous, then laparoscopic surgery may be possible. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive technique in which a surgeon uses a lighted, flexible, tube instrument and makes small incisions in the skin; the technique minimizes pain and post-operative recovery time compared with traditional incisions. It may be performed from the abdomen or back, depending on the location of the tumor and the experience of the surgeon.
However, if the tumor is possibly cancerous or larger than 5 cm to 6 cm, surgery using one large incision in the abdomen or back is recommended. If the patient has previously had abdominal surgery, an incision in the back may be easier.
Surgery is the main treatment for a pheochromocytoma.
If the surgery is performed laparoscopically, the person can usually leave the hospital in two to three days and resume daily activities within a week. If a larger incision is needed, then the person is usually hospitalized for up to five to seven days and should not lift heavy objects for six weeks after surgery.
Adrenal surgery can cause bleeding. The tumor can also make excess catecholamines (stress hormones), and the patient will need to be monitored and receive medication to treat high blood pressure during surgery.
Because adrenal gland tumors may produce excess hormones, the doctor may prescribe various medications to control the levels of these hormones before, during, or after other treatments. For example, if the tumor is producing excess catecholamines, the patient may need a drug to lower the levels of these body chemicals before additional treatment can be given. Or, after surgery, a patient may need medication to block the effects of excess cortisol, a natural steroid that may be produced by the tumor. These drugs include spironolactone (Aldactone), metyrapone (Metopirone), metyrosine (Demser), and streptozin (Zanosar).
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill tumor cells, usually by stopping the cells’ ability to grow and divide. Systemic chemotherapy is delivered through the bloodstream to reach tumor cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is given by a medical oncologist, a doctor who specializes in treating a tumor with medication. A chemotherapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of cycles given over a set period of time. A patient may receive one drug at a time or combinations of different drugs at the same time.
Mitotane (Lysodren) is a medication used to treat cancer in the adrenal cortex. It reduces the amount of adrenocorticoids produced by the adrenal cortex.
The side effects of chemotherapy depend on the individual and the dose used, but they can include fatigue, risk of infection, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. These side effects usually go away once treatment is finished.
Learn more about chemotherapy and preparing for treatment. The medications used to treat cancer are continually being evaluated. Talking with your doctor is often the best way to learn about the medications prescribed for you, their purpose, and their potential side effects or interactions with other medications.
Radiation therapy is the use of high energy x-rays or other particles to kill tumor cells. A doctor who specializes in giving radiation therapy to treat a tumor is called a radiation oncologist. The most common type of radiation treatment is called external-beam radiation therapy, which is radiation given from a machine outside the body. When radiation treatment is given using implants, it is called internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy. A radiation therapy regimen (schedule) usually consists of a specific number of trLearn more about radiation therapy.
Side effects from radiation therapy may include fatigue, mild skin reactions, upset stomach, and loose bowel movements. Most side effects go away soon after treatment is finished.
A tumor and its treatment often cause side effects. In addition to treatment to slow, stop, or eliminate the tumor, an important part of care is relieving a person’s symptoms and side effects. This approach is called palliative or supportive care, and it includes supporting the patient with his or her physical, emotional, and social needs.
Palliative care can help a person at any stage of illness. People often receive treatment for the tumor and treatment to ease side effects at the same time. In fact, patients who receive both often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report they are more satisfied with treatment.
Before treatment begins, talk with your health care team about the possible side effects of your specific treatment plan and supportive care options. And during and after treatment, be sure to tell your doctor or another health care team member if you are experiencing a problem so it is addressed as quickly as possible.
Recurrent adrenal gland tumor
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. This may also be called “no evidence of disease” or NED.
A remission can be temporary or permanent. This uncertainty leads to many survivors feeling worried or anxious that a tumor will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it’s important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the tumor returning. Understanding the risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if it does return.
If the tumor does return after the original treatment, it is called a recurrent tumor. It may come back in the same place (called a local recurrence), nearby (regional recurrence), or in another place (distant recurrence).
When this occurs, a cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about your treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the therapies described above (such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy) but may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace. Your doctor may also suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat this type of recurrent tumor.
People with a recurrent adrenal gland tumor often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear. Patients are encouraged to talk with their health care team about these feelings and ask about support services to help them cope.
Metastatic adrenal gland tumor
If an adrenal gland tumor has spread to another location in the body, it is called metastatic cancer.
Patients with this diagnosis are encouraged to talk with doctors who are experienced in treating this stage of cancer, because there can be different opinions about the best treatment plan. Learn more about seeking a second opinion before starting treatment, so you are comfortable with the treatment plan chosen.
Your health care team may recommend a treatment plan that includes a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Supportive care will also be important to help relieve symptoms and side effects.
For many patients, a diagnosis of metastatic cancer can be very stressful and, at times, difficult to bear. Patients and their families are encouraged to talk about the way they are feeling with doctors, nurses, social workers, or other members of the health care team. It may also be helpful to talk with other patients, including through a support group.
If treatment fails
Recovery from an adrenal gland tumor is not always possible. If treatment is not successful, the disease may be called advanced or terminal.
This diagnosis is stressful, and this is difficult to discuss for many people. However, it is important to have open and honest conversations with your doctor and health care team to express your feelings, preferences, and concerns. The health care team is there to help, and many team members have special skills, experience, and knowledge to support patients and their families. Making sure a person is physically comfortable and free from pain is extremely important.
Palliative care given toward the end of a person’s life is called hospice care. You and your family are encouraged to think about where you would be most comfortable: at home, in the hospital, or in a hospice environment. Nursing care and special equipment can make staying at home a workable alternative for many families.
Coping with Side Effects
Fear of treatment side effects is common after a diagnosis of a tumor, but it may help to know that preventing and controlling side effects is a major focus of your health care team. This is called palliative or supportive care, and it is an important part of the overall treatment plan, regardless of the stage of disease.
Common side effects from each treatment option for an adrenal gland tumor are described in detail within the Treatment section. Learn more about the most common side effects of a tumor and different treatments, along with ways to prevent or control them. Side effects depend on a variety of factors, including the tumor’s stage, the length and dosage of treatment(s), and your overall health.
Before treatment begins, talk with your doctor about possible side effects of each type of treatment you will be receiving. Ask which side effects are most likely to happen, when they are likely to occur, and what can be done to prevent or relieve them. And, ask about the level of caregiving you may need during treatment and recovery, as family members and friends often play an important role in the care of a person with an adrenal gland tumor. Learn more about caregiving.
In addition to physical side effects, there may be psychosocial (emotional and social) effects as well. Patients and their families are encouraged to share their feelings with a member of their health care team who can help with coping strategies. Learn more about the importance of addressing such needs, including concerns about managing the cost of your medical care.
During and after treatment, be sure to tell the health care team about the side effects you experience, even if you feel they are not serious. Sometimes, side effects can last beyond the treatment period, called a long-term side effect. A side effect that occurs months or years after treatment is called a late effect. Treatment of both types of effects is an important part of survivorship care.
After treatment for an adrenal gland tumor ends, talk with your doctor about developing a follow-up care plan. This plan may include regular physical examinations and/or medical tests to monitor your recovery for the coming months and years.
If the adrenal gland that did not have the tumor is still functional after surgery, it should be able to provide enough of the hormones needed by the body. Sometimes, a person needs hormone replacement therapy (such as steroids) because the body can’t produce enough hormones. Over time, the person often can decrease the dosage and even stop taking the hormone replacement drug. An endocrinologist (a doctor who specializes in problems of the endocrine system) should carefully monitor this process.
The endocrine system is a complex collection of hormone-producing glands that control many essential functions. If both adrenal glands have been removed, long-term medication is needed to replace the hormones normally produced by these glands, and you should wear a medical-alert bracelet to inform caregivers of your condition in case you ever become sick or unconscious and are unable to do so.
Follow-up care may include imaging scans and blood/urine tests every year. For some people with an adrenal gland tumor, the risk of developing a tumor in the other gland is 10% or higher. Because of this, people treated for an adrenal gland tumor may need regular check-ups with an endocrinologist to monitor recovery and detect any new tumor growth. In particular, adrenal cortical carcinoma can grow and spread quickly. Because it is rare, a person may want to enroll in a clinical trial at a medical center with experience treating and monitoring this type of cancer.
ASCO offers treatment summary forms to help keep track of the treatment you received and develop a survivorship care plan once treatment is complete.
People recovering from an adrenal gland tumor are encouraged to follow established guidelines for good health, such as maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking, eating a balanced diet, and having recommended cancer screening tests. Talk with your doctor to develop a plan that is best for your needs. Moderate physical activity can help rebuild your strength and energy level. Your doctor can help you create an appropriate exercise plan based upon your needs, physical abilities, and fitness level. Learn more about the next steps to take in survivorship, including making positive lifestyle changes.
Doctors are working to learn more about adrenal gland tumors, ways to prevent them, how to best treat them, and how to provide the best care to people diagnosed with them. The following areas of research may include new options for patients through clinical trials. Always talk with your doctor about the diagnostic and treatment options best for you.
Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy (also called biologic therapy) is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight a tumor. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to bolster, target, or restore immune system function. The effectiveness of immunotherapy as a treatment for an adrenal gland tumor is being researched in clinical trials. Learn more about immunotherapy.
Supportive care. Clinical trials are underway to find better ways of reducing symptoms and side effects of current adrenal gland tumor treatments, in order to improve patients’ comfort and quality of life.
Molecular markers. Studies analyzing the role of genes and proteins in a person’s tumor are underway. The focus of these studies is to help fine-tune the diagnosis and predict treatment results.
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) tumors. SDH is a specialized protein that plays an important role in the body’s metabolism. Researchers think that when this gene is inactivated, it results in cancer, including tumors of the adrenal gland.