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Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

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What is gestational trophoblastic disease?

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of rare tumors that involve abnormal growth of cells inside a woman's uterus. GTD does not develop from cells of the uterus like cervical cancer or endometrial (uterine lining) cancer do. Instead, these tumors start in the cells that would normally develop into the placenta during pregnancy. (The term gestational refers to pregnancy.)


GTD begins in the layer of cells called the trophoblast that normally surrounds an embryo. (Tropho- means nutrition, and -blast means bud or early developmental cell.) Early in normal development, the cells of the trophoblast form tiny, finger-like projections known as villi. The villi grow into the lining of the uterus. In time, the trophoblast layer develops into the placenta, the organ that protects and nourishes the growing fetus.

Most GTDs are benign (not cancer) and they don't invade deeply into body tissues or spread to other parts of the body. But some are malignant (cancerous). Because not all of these tumors are cancerous, this group of tumors may be referred to as gestational trophoblastic disease, gestational trophoblastic tumors, or gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. (The word neoplasia simply means new growth.)

All forms of GTD can be treated. And in most cases the treatment produces a complete cure.

Types of gestational trophoblastic disease

The main types of gestational trophoblastic diseases are:

Hydatidiform mole (complete or partial)

Invasive mole


Placental-site trophoblastic tumor

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor

Hydatidiform mole

The most common form of GTD is called a hydatidiform mole, also known as a molar pregnancy. It is made up of villi that have become swollen with fluid. The swollen villi grow in clusters that look like bunches of grapes. This is called amolar pregnancy, but it is not possible for a normal baby to form. Hydatidiform moles are not cancerous, but they can develop into cancerous GTDs.

There are 2 types of hydatidiform moles: complete and partial.

A complete hydatidiform mole most often develops when either 1 or 2 sperm cells fertilize an egg cell that contains no nucleus or DNA (an “empty” egg cell). All the genetic material comes from the father's sperm cell. Therefore, there is no fetal tissue.

Surgery can totally remove most complete moles, but as many as 1 in 5 women will have some persistent molar tissue (see below). Most often this is an invasive mole, but rarely it is a choriocarcinoma, a malignant (cancerous) form of GTD. In either case it will require further treatment.

A partial hydatidiform mole develops when 2 sperm fertilize a normal egg. These tumors contain some fetal tissue, but this is often mixed in with the trophoblastic tissue. It is important to know that a viable (able to live) fetus is not being formed.

Partial moles are usually completely removed by surgery. Only a small number of women with partial moles need further treatment after initial surgery. Partial moles rarely develop into malignant GTD.

Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is GTD that is not cured by initial surgery. Persistent GTD occurs when the hydatidiform mole has grown from the surface layer of the uterus into the muscle layer below (called themyometrium). The surgery used to treat a hydatidiform mole (called suction dilation and curettage, or D&C) scrapes the inside of the uterus. This removes only the inner layer of the uterus (the endometrium) and cannot remove tumor that has grown into the muscular layer.

Most cases of persistent GTD are invasive moles, but in rare cases they are choriocarcinomas or placental site trophoblastic tumors (see below).

Invasive mole

An invasive mole (formerly known as chorioadenoma destruens) is a hydatidiform mole that has grown into the muscle layer of the uterus. Invasive moles can develop from either complete or partial moles, but complete moles become invasive much more often than do partial moles. Invasive moles develop in a little less than 1 out of 5 women who have had a complete mole removed. The risk of developing an invasive mole in these women increases if:

There is a long time (more than 4 months) between the last menstrual period and treatment.

The uterus has become very large.

The woman is older than 40 years.

The woman has had GTD in the past.

Because these moles have grown into the uterine muscle layer, they aren't completely removed during a D&C. Invasive moles can sometimes go away on their own, but most often more treatment is needed.

A tumor or mole that grows completely through the wall of the uterus may result in bleeding into the abdominal or pelvic cavity. This bleeding can be life threatening.

Sometimes after removing a complete hydatidiform mole, the tumor spreads (metastasizes) to other parts of the body, most often the lungs. This occurs about 4% of the time (or 1 in 25 cases).


Choriocarcinoma is a malignant form of GTD. It is much more likely than other types of GTD to grow quickly and spread to organs away from the uterus.

Choriocarcinoma most often develops from a complete hydatidiform mole, but it can also occur after a partial mole, a normal pregnancy, or a pregnancy that ends early (such as a miscarriage or an elective abortion).

Rarely, choriocarcinomas that are not related to pregnancy can develop. These can be found in areas other than the uterus, and can occur in both men and women. They may develop in the ovaries, testicles, chest, or abdomen. In these cases, choriocarcinoma is usually mixed with other types of cancer, forming a type of cancer called a mixed germ cell tumor.

These tumors are not considered to be gestational (related to pregnancy) and are not discussed in this document. Non-gestational choriocarcinoma can be less responsive to chemotherapy and may have a less favorable prognosis (outlook) than gestational choriocarcinoma. 

Placental-site trophoblastic tumor

Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a very rare form of GTD that develops where the placenta attaches to the lining of the uterus. This tumor most often develops after a normal pregnancy or abortion, but it may also develop after a complete or partial mole is removed.

Most PSTTs do not spread to other sites in the body. But these tumors have a tendency to grow into (invade) the muscle layer of the uterus.

Most forms of GTD are very sensitive to chemotherapy drugs, but PSTTs are not. Instead, they are treated with surgery, aimed at completely removing disease.

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is an extremely rare type of GTD that can be hard to diagnose. ETT used to be called atypical choriocarcinoma because the cells look like choriocarcinoma cells under the microscope, but it is now thought to be a separate disease. Because it can be found growing in the cervix, it can also sometimes be confused with cervical cancer. Like PSTT, ETT most often occurs after a full-term pregnancy, but it can take several years after the pregnancy for the ETT to occur. Also, like PSTT, ETT does not respond very well to chemotherapy drugs, so the main treatment is surgery. It might have already metastasized when it is diagnosed which carries a poorer prognosis (outlook).

What are the risk factors for gestational trophoblastic disease?

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx (voice box), bladder, kidney, and several other organs.

But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that you will get the disease. And some people who get the disease may not have any known risk factors. Even if a person has a risk factor, it is often very hard to know how much that risk factor may have contributed to the cancer.

Researchers have found several risk factors that might increase a woman's chance of developing gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).

Age: GTD occurs most often in women of childbearing age. The risk of complete molar pregnancy is highest in women over age 40 and younger than 20. The risk is even higher for women over age 50. In this age group, one-third of pregnancies results in a complete hydatidiform mole. Age is less likely to be a factor for partial moles.

Prior molar pregnancy: Once a woman has had a hydatidiform mole, she has a higher risk of having another one. The overall risk for later pregnancies is about 1% to 2%. This risk is higher if she has had more than one molar pregnancy.

Prior miscarriage(s) or problems getting pregnant: Women with either of these have a higher risk of GTD, but their overall risk is still low.

Blood type: Women with blood type A or AB are at slightly higher risk than those with type B or O.

Birth control pills: Women who take birth control pills may be more likely to get GTD when they do become pregnant. The link between the use of birth control pills and GTD is weak, and may be explained by other factors. This risk seems to be higher for women who took the pills longer. But the risk is still so low that it doesn't outweigh the benefit of using the pills.

Socioeconomic status: Some studies have found that women who have lower income or education level have an increased risk, but the reasons for this are not clear. Some researchers have suggested that diet may play a role.

Diet: A few studies have found that a low level of beta-carotene (a nutrient converted to vitamin A in the body) in the diet may be linked with a higher risk of complete molar pregnancies. More research is needed to confirm this.

Family history: Very rarely, several women in the same family have one or more molar pregnancies.

Do we know what causes gestational trophoblastic disease?

Normally, the sperm and egg cells each provide a set of 23 chromosomes (bits of DNA that contain our genes) to create a cell with 46 chromosomes. This cell will start dividing to eventually become a fetus. This normal process does not occur with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).

Complete hydatidiform moles

In complete hydatidiform moles, a sperm cell fertilizes an abnormal egg cell that has no nucleus (or chromosomes). The reason the egg contains no chromosomes is not known. After fertilization, the chromosomes from the sperm duplicate themselves, so there are 2 copies of identical chromosomes that both come from the sperm.

When this happens, normal development cannot occur, and no fetus is formed. Instead, a complete hydatidiform mole develops. Less often, a complete mole forms when an abnormal egg without any chromosomes is fertilized by 2 sperm cells. Again, there are 2 copies of the father's chromosomes and none from the mother, and no fetus forms.

Partial hydatidiform moles

A partial hydatidiform mole results when 2 sperm cells fertilize a normal egg at the same time. The fertilized egg contains 3 sets of chromosomes (69) instead of the usual 2 sets (46). An embryo with 3 sets of chromosomes cannot grow into a normally developed infant. Instead, this leads to an abnormal (malformed) fetus along with some normal placental tissue and a partial hydatidiform mole.

Invasive moles

Invasive moles are hydatidiform moles that begin to grow into the muscle layer of the uterus. They develop more often from complete moles than from partial moles. It's not clear exactly what causes this to happen.


Most choriocarcinomas develop from persistent hydatidiform moles (usually complete moles). They can also develop when bits of tissue are left behind in the uterus after a miscarriage, an intended abortion, or the delivery of a baby following an otherwise normal pregnancy. Researchers have found changes in certain genes that are commonly found in choriocarcinoma cells, but it's not clear what causes these changes.

Placental-site trophoblastic tumor

Placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is an uncommon type of GTD. Unlike choriocarcinomas and hydatidiform moles, they do not have villi. They develop most often after full-term pregnancies.

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors are even rarer than PSTTs. Like PSTTs, they develop most often after full-term pregnancies, but it can be many years later.

Can gestational trophoblastic disease be prevented?

The only way to avoid the rare chance of developing gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is to not get pregnant. But GTD is so rare that its prevention should not be a factor in family planning decisions.

Women with a history of one or more molar pregnancies should talk with their doctor to be sure they understand their risk for future molar pregnancies.

Can gestational trophoblastic disease be found early?

Most cases of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) are found early during routine prenatal care. Usually, a woman has certain signs and symptoms, like vaginal bleeding, that suggest something may be wrong. These signs will prompt the doctor to look for the cause of trouble.

Often, moles or tumors cause swelling in the uterus that seems like a normal pregnancy. But a doctor can usually tell that this isn't a normal pregnancy during a routine ultrasound exam. A blood test for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) can also show that something is abnormal. This substance is normally elevated in the blood of pregnant women, but it may be very high if there is GTD.

Fortunately, even if it is not detected early, GTD is a very treatable (and usually curable) form of cancer.

Because women who have had one molar pregnancy are at increased risk, doctors can be especially careful in checking their future pregnancies with beta-HCG tests and transvaginal or pelvic sonograms.

How is gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosed?

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is most often found either as a result of abnormal signs or symptoms during pregnancy or from the results of certain tests during routine prenatal care.

Signs and symptoms

It's important to tell your doctor about any abnormal symptoms you are having during pregnancy. Your doctor may suspect that GTD is present based on a typical pattern of signs and symptoms. Many of these could also be caused by conditions other than GTD. Still, if you have any of these, it's important to see your doctor right away so the cause can be found and treated, if needed.

Complete hydatidiform moles (molar pregnancies)

Most of these signs and symptoms (except for bleeding), are seen less commonly now than in the past because they tend to occur late in the course of the disease. Most women with GTD are now diagnosed early because of the use of blood tests and ultrasound early in pregnancy.

Vaginal bleeding: Almost all women with complete hydatidiform moles have irregular vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. It occurs a little less often with partial moles. Bleeding typically starts during the first trimester (13 weeks) of pregnancy. Women with GTD often pass blood clots or watery brown discharge from the vagina. Sometimes, pieces of the mole resembling a cluster of grapes become dislodged from the uterus and are discharged through the vagina. This bleeding often leads the doctor to order an ultrasound (discussed later in this section), which leads to the diagnosis of a molar pregnancy.

Anemia: In cases of serious or prolonged bleeding, a woman's body is not able to replace red blood cells as fast as they are lost. This can lead to anemia (low red blood cell counts). Symptoms can include fatigue and shortness of breath, especially with physical activity.

Abdominal swelling: The uterus and abdomen can get bigger faster in a complete molar pregnancy than they do in a normal pregnancy. Abnormal uterine enlargement occurs in about 1 out 4 women with complete moles but rarely in women with partial moles.

Ovarian cysts: Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a hormone made by the tumor (see below), may cause fluid-filled cysts to form in the ovaries. These cysts can be large enough to cause abdominal swelling. They only occur with very high levels of HCG. Even though they can become quite large, they usually go away on their own about 8 weeks after the molar pregnancy is removed. Sometimes they can twist on their blood supply (called torsion). This can cause severe pain and is treated with surgery to remove the cyst or a procedure to drain the fluid inside the cyst.

Vomiting: Many women have nausea and vomiting during the course of a typical pregnancy. With GTD, however, the vomiting may be more frequent and severe than normal.

Pre-eclampsia: Pre-eclampsia (toxemia of pregnancy) can occur as a complication of a normal pregnancy (usually in the third trimester). When it occurs earlier in pregnancy (like during the first or early second trimester), it can be a sign of a complete molar pregnancy. Pre-eclampsia may cause problems such as high blood pressure, headache, exaggerated reflexes, swelling in the hands or feet, and too much protein leaking into the urine. It affects a small number of women with complete moles but is rare in women with partial moles.

Hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism (having an overactive thyroid gland) occurs in some women with complete hydatidiform moles. It occurs only in women with very high HCG blood levels. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism can include a rapid heartbeat, warm skin, sweating, problems tolerating heat, and mild tremors (shaking). This occurs in less than 10% of women with complete molar pregnancy.

Partial hydatidiform moles

The signs and symptoms of partial hydatidiform moles are similar to those of complete moles, but often are less severe. Some symptoms, such as frequent vomiting or an overactive thyroid gland, rarely, if ever, occur with partial moles.

Partial moles are often diagnosed after a woman has what is thought to be a miscarriage. The molar pregnancy is found when the uterus is scraped during a suction dilation and curettage (D&C) and the products of conception are looked at under a microscope.

Invasive moles and choriocarcinoma

These more invasive forms of GTD sometimes develop after a complete mole has been removed. They occur less commonly after a partial mole. Choriocarcinoma can also develop after a normal pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy (where the fetus grows outside of the uterus, such as inside a fallopian tube), or miscarriage. Symptoms can include:

Bleeding: The most common symptom is vaginal bleeding. Rarely, the tumor grows through the uterine wall, which can cause bleeding into the abdominal cavity and severe abdominal pain.

Infection: In larger tumors, some of the tumor cells may die, creating an area where bacteria can grow. Infection may develop, which can cause vaginal discharge, crampy pelvic pain, and fever.

Abdominal swelling: Like hydatidiform moles, more invasive forms of GTD can expand the uterus, causing abdominal swelling. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), a hormone made by the tumor (see “Blood and urine tests”), may cause fluid-filled cysts (called theca lutein cysts) to form in the ovaries, which can be large and may also contribute to abdominal swelling.

Lung symptoms: The lung is a common site for distant spread of GTD. Spread to the lungs may cause coughing up of blood, a dry cough, chest pain, or trouble breathing.

Vaginal mass: These tumors can sometimes spread to the vagina, which can cause vaginal bleeding or a pus-like discharge. The doctor may also notice a cancerous growth on the vagina during a pelvic exam.

Other symptoms of distant spread: Symptoms depend on where GTD has spread. If GTD has spread to the brain, symptoms can include headache, vomiting, dizziness, seizures, or paralysis on one side of the body. Spread to the liver can cause abdominal pain and yellowing of the skin or eyes (jaundice).

Placental site trophoblastic tumors

Placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs) rarely spread to distant sites. More often, they grow into the wall of the uterus

Bleeding: The most common symptom of PSTT is vaginal bleeding. If the tumor grows all the way through the wall of the uterus, it can cause bleeding into the abdominal cavity and severe abdominal pain.

Abdominal swelling: As they grow within the wall of the uterus, PSTTs may cause the uterus to enlarge.

Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors

The most common symptom of an epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is vaginal bleeding. Other symptoms will depend on where it has spread. For example, if it has spread to the lung, the patient may cough or have shortness of breath. ETTs have also spread to the intestine, where they can cause abdominal (belly) pain, nausea, and vomiting.

Blood and urine tests

Blood and urine tests can be used to help diagnose GTD.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

Trophoblastic cells of both normal placentas and GTD make a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), which is vital in supporting a pregnancy. HCG is released into the blood, and some of it is excreted in the urine. This hormone has 2 chemical components, and the commonly used blood and urine tests measure one of these, calledbeta-HCG (βHCG).

HCG is normally found only in the blood or urine of pregnant women. In fact, finding HCG in urine is the basis of most pregnancy tests.

A complete mole usually releases more HCG than a normal placenta, so finding higher than expected HCG levels in the blood can be a sign that a complete mole is present.

However, not all women with GTD have HCG levels that are higher than those seen in a normal pregnancy. For example, most women with partial moles, placental site trophoblastic tumors, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors have normal or only slightly increased HCG levels.

HCG tests can also help tell if GTD may be present after a pregnancy or miscarriage, as the level of HCG should normally fall to an undetectable level soon afterward.

Along with helping to diagnose GTD, blood HCG levels are also very useful in women already known to have GTD. They can be used to:

Help estimate the amount of GTD that is present in a patient's body. Higher levels of HCG may mean that there are more tumor cells in the body.

Determine if treatment is working. HCG levels should drop to normal after treatment.

Detect GTD that has come back after treatment

It's especially important to monitor HCG levels during treatment and follow-up to make sure the disease is going and has gone away, or has not returned. The HCG test is generally very accurate. In rare cases, patients may have abnormal substances (antibodies) in their blood that interfere with the HCG test. When these patients' blood samples are tested, the HCG levels appear higher than they really are, a situation known as phantom HCG. In some cases, women have been diagnosed with GTD when it is not actually present. A sign of phantom HCG is having high blood levels of HCG, but normal urine levels (because the abnormal antibodies are not present in urine). If doctors notice that the blood (or serum) levels of HCG are high but the urine levels are not, they can order special tests to distinguish between truly elevated HCG levels and phantom HCG.

Other blood tests

Other tests may provide indirect evidence of GTD. For example, red blood cell counts can detect anemia (having too few red blood cells), which can be caused by uterine bleeding. Human placental lactogen (hPL) is a marker that may be used to follow up patients with PSTT.

For women diagnosed with GTD, blood tests are often used to watch for side effects from chemotherapy. Blood cell counts are done to watch the health of the bone marrow (where new blood cells are made), and blood chemistry tests can be used to check the condition of the liver and kidneys.

Tests of spinal fluid

If symptoms suggest GTD might have spread to the brain or spinal cord or if there is a high HCG level but no tumors are seen on any radiology studies, spinal fluid may be checked for signs of tumor spread. This procedure is called alumbar puncture or spinal tap. For this test, the patient may lie on their side or sit up. The doctor first numbs an area in the lower part of the back over the spine. A small, hollow needle is then placed between the bones of the spine to withdraw some of the fluid.

Imaging tests

Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive substances to create pictures of the inside of your body. Imaging tests may be done to help find out whether a tumor is present and to learn how far it may have spread.

Ultrasound (sonogram)

Ultrasound can identify most cases of GTD that are in the uterus, and will likely be the first test done if your doctor suspects there may be a problem.

How it works: This test uses sound waves to produce images of internal organs. A small microphone-like instrument called a transducer gives off sound waves and then picks up the echoes they make as they bounce off body tissues. The echoes are converted into a black and white image by a computer. That image is then shown on a computer screen.

What it's like to have the test: During an ultrasound exam, you simply lie on a table while a technician or doctor moves the transducer on the part of your body being examined. Most ultrasounds are done with the transducer placed on the skin after is first lubricated with gel.

To diagnose GTD, a different type of ultrasound called transvaginal ultrasonography is most often used. In this procedure, a small transducer is placed into the vagina. This allows for good images of the uterus for women suspected of having GTD during the first trimester of their pregnancy.

What doctors look for: In a normal pregnancy, ultrasound imaging shows a picture of the developing fetus inside the womb.

In a complete molar pregnancy, however, no fetus can be seen on an ultrasound. Instead, the ultrasound detects the large, grape-like swollen villi that are typical of GTD. Rarely, the ultrasound may show a "twin" pregnancy in which one of the twins is a normal fetus and the other is a hydatidiform mole. This occurs less than 1% of the time.

In a partial molar pregnancy, ultrasound can show an abnormally formed placenta. If a fetus is seen, it is often deformed.

Ultrasound can also be used to help find out if a mole is invading local tissues. If blood levels of HCG are still elevated after the mole has been removed, more exams may need to be done.

Chest x-ray

A chest x-ray may be done in cases of persistent GTD to see if it has spread to your lungs, which is very unlikely unless the cancer is far advanced. However, CT scans of the chest are done more often if your doctor suspects spread outside of the uterus. Either test can be done in an outpatient setting.

Computed tomography (CT) scan

The CT scan is an x-ray test that produces detailed cross-sectional images of your body. Instead of taking one picture, like a regular x-ray, a CT scanner takes many pictures as it rotates around you while you lie on a table. A computer then combines these pictures into images of slices of the part of your body being studied. Unlike a regular x-ray, a CT scan creates detailed images of the soft tissues in the body.

Before any pictures are taken, you may be asked to drink 1 to 2 pints of a liquid called oral contrast. This helps outline the intestine so that certain areas are not mistaken for tumors. You may also receive an IV (intravenous) line through which a different kind of contrast dye (IV contrast) is injected. This helps better outline structures in your body.

The injection may cause some flushing (a feeling of warmth, especially in the face). Some people are allergic and get hives. Rarely, more serious reactions like trouble breathing or low blood pressure can occur. Medicine can be given to prevent and treat allergic reactions. Be sure to tell the doctor if you have ever had a reaction to any contrast material used for x-rays.

CT scans take longer than regular x-rays. You need to lie still on a table while they are being done. During the test, the table moves in and out of the scanner, a ring-shaped machine that completely surrounds the table. You might feel a bit confined by the ring you have to lie in while the pictures are being taken.

This test may be done to see if GTD has spread outside the uterus, such as the lungs, brain, or liver.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan

Like CT scans, MRI scans provide detailed images of soft tissues in the body. But MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays. The energy from the radio waves is absorbed and then released in a pattern formed by the type of body tissue and by certain diseases. A computer translates the pattern into a very detailed image of parts of the body. A contrast material called gadolinium is often injected into a vein before the scan to better see details. This is different than the IV contrast used for CT scans.

MRI scans are a little more uncomfortable than CT scans. First, they take longer − often up to an hour. Second, you have to lie inside a narrow tube, which is confining and can upset people with claustrophobia (a fear of enclosed spaces). Special, "open" MRI machines can sometimes help with this if needed. The machine also makes buzzing and clicking noises that you may find disturbing. Some centers provide headphones with music to block this out.

MRI scans are most helpful in looking at the brain and spinal cord. They are most likely to be used to scan the brain if GTD has already been found to have spread elsewhere, such as to the lungs. Sometimes they are used to look to see if the tumor has grown into the wall of the uterus.

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

PET scans involve injecting a form of radioactive sugar (known as fluorodeoxyglucose or FDG) into the blood. The amount of radioactivity used is very low. Cancer cells in the body grow rapidly, so they absorb large amounts of the radioactive sugar. A special camera can then create a picture of areas of radioactivity in the body. The picture is not finely detailed like a CT or MRI scan, but it provides helpful information about your whole body.

PET scans are sometimes useful if your doctor thinks the cancer may have spread (or returned after treatment) but doesn't know where. PET scans can be used instead of several different imaging tests because they scan your whole body. Still, these tests are rarely used for GTD.

Some machines are able to perform both a PET and CT scan at the same time (PET/CT scan). This allows the radiologist to compare areas of higher radioactivity on the PET with the appearance of that area on the CT.

Other tests

Doctors can often be fairly certain of a diagnosis of GTD based on symptoms, blood test results, and imaging tests, but the diagnosis is often made after a D&C in patients with abnormal bleeding. The cells from the tumor are removed and viewed under a microscope. The cells from different types of GTD each look different under the microscope. Sometimes complete and partial moles may be hard to tell apart when they are examined under the microscope early in the first trimester. If so, other tests may be needed to distinguish the 2 types of mole. Some tests, calledcytogenetics, look at the number and type of chromosomes of the mole. Other tests may look at certain genes that only come from the mother to see if it is a partial mole versus a complete mole.

How is gestational trophoblastic disease staged?

Staging is the process of finding out how far a cancer has spread. Doctors use this information to choose the type of treatment that offers the best possible results.

Molar pregnancies (complete and partial moles) are usually completely removed during a D&C (or, rarely, a hysterectomy), so they don't need to be surgically "staged." Staging is more useful for persistent GTDs, including invasive moles and choriocarcinomas.

Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) classification

Most cancers are staged depending on how large they are and whether they have spread to lymph nodes or distant sites. Then treatment is decided based on the stage. Stage is also used to predict a patient’s outlook. But because treatment for GTD is usually effective regardless of the extent of the disease, other factors such as a woman's age, length of time from the pregnancy, and HCG level are more useful in predicting a woman's outlook (prognosis). These factors are taken into account in a scoring system.

FIGO anatomic staging

The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) developed a staging system based on the extent of the GTD as follows:

Stage I: The tumor is still within the uterus.

Stage II: The tumor has grown outside the uterus into other genital structures (like the vagina or ovaries). It has not spread outside the pelvis.

Stage III: The tumor has spread to the lungs; and it may also involve genital structures such as the vagina or vulva.

Stage IV: The tumor has spread to distant organs such as the brain, liver, kidneys, and/or gastrointestinal tract.

Stage grouping

Stage grouping is a process that some doctor use that combines the prognostic score and the anatomic stage. This is listed as the anatomic stage, followed by the letter A if the prognostic score was low risk or B if the prognostic score resulted in high risk.

Stage IA: The tumor has not spread outside the uterus, and the prognostic score puts you at low risk.

Stage IB: The tumor has not spread outside the uterus, and the prognostic score puts you at high risk.

Stage IIA: The tumor has grown outside of the uterus but not beyond the vagina or pelvis, and the prognostic score puts you at low risk.

Stage IIB: The tumor has grown outside of the uterus but not beyond the vagina or pelvis, and the prognostic score puts you at high risk.

Stage IIIA: The tumor has spread to the lungs, and may or may not also involve genital structures such as the vagina or vulva. The prognostic score puts you at low risk.

Stage IIIB: The tumor has spread to the lungs, and may or may not also involve genital structures such as the vagina or vulva. The prognostic score puts you at high risk.

Stage IVA: The cancer has spread to distant organs such as the brain, liver, kidneys, and/or gastrointestinal tract. The prognostic score puts you at low risk.

Stage IVB: The cancer has spread to distant organs such as the brain, liver, kidneys, and/or gastrointestinal tract. The prognostic score puts you at high risk.

Another option combines the anatomic stage with the actual prognostic score number (separated by a colon). An example of this is II:5.

If GTD comes back after treatment (recurs), the disease is "restaged." This takes into account where the disease is in the body, along with the prior treatment.

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